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Each of these specific technologies has its relative advantages and disadvantages, but it is important to realize that the principles of registration apply to all tracking systems and are not specific to any one tracking technology. Regardless of the specific hardware, the CAS surgical navigation system must have the capability to ‘‘learn’’ the location of the operative field. Conceptually, all points in the operating field volume may be assigned a unique x, y, z coordinate value that defines the position of the point in relation to all other points in the operating field volume.

Registration is completed when the surgeon touches these same points on the patient while activating the footpedal. The electromagnetic system uses fiducial points, which have been embedded into the patient headset. Since the patient wears this headset during both the preoperative CT scan and surgery, the computer can align the CT scan with the patient’s anatomy. The surgeon performs the registration process by holding the tip of the suction handpiece in a divot in the center of the headset and rotating the instrument around the tip at 90° increments.

6). This unit couples electromagnetic tracking to either straight or curved aspirators. With the InstaTrak, no intraoperative complications were encountered in 14 surgical cases. The system was easily integrated into the operating room setting. While complete analysis of the data was deferred until completion of a multisite study, a secondary study using cadaver dissection reported an accuracy of within 2 mm. The authors concluded that the InstaTrak system had overcome many of the limitations of other computer-guided methods.

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1000 Photoshop Tips and Tricks (Dec 2010) by UNKNOWN

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