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By John G. Webster (Editor)

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Corrosion, however, is practically eliminated by hermetic modules for their lifetime. One can express a critical quantity Qc of reactive species, such as Cl and S, that causes failure in time tf , as a function of species leak or permeation rate at atmospheric concentration (Ͱ, kg/s), species reaction rate at atmospheric concentration (ͱ, kg/s), and internal module volume V under accelerated test conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and bias: QC = αβ V t − α+β f α+β 1 − exp − α+β tf V (42) When Ͱ Ӷ ͱ, the corrosion process is controlled by the permeation or leak rate.

However its surface facing the chip contracts as a result of the bending, so that the net surface displacement is much smaller than that calculated from the TCE. On the other hand, the chip surface facing the substrate expands because of the bending so that the total strain (thermal plus mechanical) is greater than that calculated from the TCE. The result is that the thermal mismatch between chip and substrate is effectively reduced by a factor of 5, which explains the improvement in the fatigue life by a factor of 20 to 25.

This is not true for the corrosion mechanism where local reaction still occurs (galvanic) in the absence of an outside potential. 5 V to 2 V depending on contamination and local alloy composition. It is usually assumed zero for tests run at relatively high voltages. 0000075 m/V, to fit migration’s linear dependence on low voltages prevailing at use conditions. 3 eV, reflecting the diffusion-controlled process through water. FORCED-DIFFUSION TRANSPORT MODELS Electromigration This mechanism affects solder interconnects and circuitry, especially aluminum lands and to a lesser extent Al–Cu, where Cu can be a maximum of 4% by weight.

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52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)

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